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Reflecting on Birsa Munda’s Legacy: Death Anniversary of an Iconic Tribal Leader

Birsa Munda’s slogan threatening the British Raj—Abua raj ete jana, maharani raj tundu jana (“Let the kingdom of the queen be ended and our kingdom be established”)—is still remembered in areas of Jharkhand, Odisha, Bihar, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh. – wikipedia

On the solemn day of Birsa Munda’s 123rd death anniversary (1875-1900), a revered Adivasi leader, our team at Rozanauodates sends heartfelt wishes, paying homage to his indomitable spirit and unwavering commitment to indigenous rights. May his legacy continue to inspire and guide us in the pursuit of justice and equality for all. 


Birsa Munda, also known as Bhagwan Birsa Munda, was born on November 15, 1875, in Ulihatu village in modern-day Jharkhand, India. He was born into the Munda tribe, an indigenous community in the region. his early life was influenced by the social and economic struggles faced by his community under British colonial rule.

He grew up witnessing the exploitation of his people by British landlords, missionaries, and the oppressive feudal system. he received some education at a local missionary school, where he learned about Christianity and the teachings of Jesus Christ.

However, he became disillusioned with the missionaries and their attempts to convert his tribe. He started questioning the injustices faced by his people and became determined to fight for their rights and the preservation of their tribal identity.

Birsa Munda faced numerous struggles throughout his life as he fought for the rights and welfare of his community. Here are some key struggles he encountered:

  1. Exploitation by British Colonial Rule: He witnessed the oppressive policies of the British colonial administration, which exploited the resources and labor of indigenous communities, including his own Munda tribe.
  2. Land Alienation: The British implemented land policies that dispossessed indigenous peoples from their ancestral lands. Birsa Munda fought against this land alienation, advocating for the rights of his people to retain control over their territories.
  3. They forced Labor and Indentured Servitude: The British colonial authorities forced indigenous people into labor-intensive activities, including mining and plantation work. Birsa Munda campaigned against the exploitative practice of forced labor and sought to secure fair working conditions for his community.
  4. Cultural Suppression and Conversion Efforts: Missionaries attempted to convert the Munda tribe to Christianity, undermining their indigenous beliefs, culture, and traditions. Birsa Munda resisted these conversion efforts, emphasizing the preservation of Munda’s identity and cultural heritage.
Countless people came forward to pay their heartfelt tributes, honoring the remarkable contributions and legacy of Birsa Munda.


Birsa Munda led the influential tribal movement called the “Birsa Munda Movement” or the “Ulgulan Movement.” Here are the key features of this movement:

1. Assertion of Tribal Identity: He dedicated himself to preserving and promoting the identity, culture, and traditions of the tribal communities. He aimed to foster pride and unity among indigenous groups, reviving and celebrating their customs and practices.

2. Resistance against British Oppression: The BirsaMunda Movement emerged as a response to the oppressive policies of the British colonial administration. BirsaMunda organized protests, uprisings, and acts of civil disobedience against exploitative British landlords, officials, and agents who exploited the indigenous communities.

3. Protection of Land and Forest Rights: Birsa Munda vigorously advocated for the recognition and safeguarding of tribal land and forest rights. He fought to return confiscated lands to the indigenous people and called for an end to encroachments on their ancestral territories.


4. Socioeconomic Reforms: Addressing the socioeconomic disparities faced by tribal communities was a crucial aspect of the movement. Birsa Munda demanded fair wages, improved working conditions, and an end to exploitative practices like forced labor and indentured servitude.

5. Revival of Indigenous Religion and Culture: Birsa-Munda aimed to rejuvenate and strengthen the spiritual practices and beliefs of the tribal communities. He resisted the influence of Christian missionaries, rejecting their attempts to convert indigenous people and advocating for the preservation of their native religious traditions.

6. Charismatic Leadership and Mobilization: Birsa-Munda emerged as a charismatic leader who inspired and mobilized the tribal communities. His powerful speeches, songs, and symbolic actions galvanized his followers, urging them to rise against injustice and fight for their rights.



Birsa Munda’s journey took a tragic turn when he was arrested on February 3, 1900, at Jamkopai forest in Chakradharpur. The Deputy Commissioner of Ranchi reported that 460 tribals were accused in 15 different criminal cases, leading to convictions of 63 individuals. Among them, one was sentenced to death, 39 to transportation for life, and 23 to imprisonment for terms up to fourteen years. Tragically, six deaths, including that of BirsaMunda, occurred during the trials while they were in prison.

Birsa Munda’s demise on June 9, 1900, in jail marked a significant loss. Following his death, the momentum of the movement began to fade. However, his efforts were not in vain. In 1908, the colonial government introduced the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act (CNT), which aimed to safeguard tribal land by prohibiting its transfer to non-tribals. This act stood as a testament to the lasting impact of Birsa Munda’s struggle for the rights of indigenous peoples.

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